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Jekyll Und Mr. Edition English Edition 4 Gesaenge Op Paperback Ed. Der Meister. Der Tanz Mit Dem Teufel. National Geographic Explorer - Hamburg. Klarinette Und Klavier. Ausgabe Mit CD. Ferienland Am Meer. Or Be Eaten: Wild Escapes. Uh-oh, it looks like your Internet Explorer is out of date. For a better shopping experience, please upgrade now. Javascript is not enabled in your browser. Enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the features of our site.

Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. Shop Indie eBooks. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Plasmapheresis, a process that cleanses antibodies from the blood, may ease symptoms in people with paraneoplastic disorders that affect the peripheral nervous system. Speech and physical therapy may help individuals regain some functions. There are no cures for paraneoplastic syndromes.

There are no available treatments to stop progressive neurological damage. Generally, the stage of cancer at diagnosis determines the outcome. Eventually sleep disturbances, dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness may occur. A small percentage of dementias are reversible, occurring as a secondary development in treatable conditions. Infections - Dementia-like symptoms or delirium can result from fever or other side effects of your body's attempt to fight off an infection. Metabolic Problems and Endocrine Abnormalities such as thyroid problems, low blood sugar hypoglycemia , too little or too much sodium or calcium, an impaired ability to absorb vitamin B and markedly decreased Cortisol's can develop dementia-like symptoms or other personality changes.

Reactions To Medications - Side effects of medications or drug combinations may cause dementia like symptoms that arise quickly or develop slowly over time. Subdural hematomas - Bleeding between the surface of the brain and the covering over the brain, which is common in an elderly person after a fall, can cause symptoms similar to dementia. It can be treated or even reversed by implanting a shunt system to divert fluid from the brain. An elderly person with this condition usually has trouble with walking and bladder control before onset of dementia.

Cerebral Vasculitis - Necrosis tissue death of blood vessel walls can cause a form of dementia that may resolve when a person is treated with immune suppressants. Some studies have shown that a person with depression is at increased risk of developing dementia.

One form of depression pseudo dementia , presents as dementia and can be treated. A person with HAD may develop movement problems as well. The incidence of HAD has dropped dramatically with the availability of effective antiviral therapies for managing the underlying HIV infection. Many factors can eventually lead to dementia. Some factors can't be changed but others can be addressed to reduce your risk. Environmental factors may play a role in the development of certain types of dementia.

Sometimes a person may carry genetic mutations that influence his or her response to environmental factors. When hypoxia lasts for longer periods of time, it can cause coma, seizures, and even brain death. In brain death, there is no measurable activity in the brain, although cardiovascular function is preserved. Life support is required for respiration. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the hypoxia, but basic life-support systems have to be put in place.

Recovery depends on how long the brain has been deprived of oxygen and how much brain damage has occurred, although carbon monoxide poisoning can cause brain damage days to weeks after the event. A person who makes a full recovery has only been briefly unconscious. The longer a person is unconscious, the higher the chances of death or brain death and the lower the chances of a meaningful recovery. During recovery, psychological and neurological abnormalities such as amnesia, personality regression, hallucinations, memory loss, and muscle spasms and twitches may appear, persist, and then resolve.

Types of Dementia. Etiology The etiology of MCI is varied and can be associated with metabolic and endocrine factors hormones , chronic kidney disease and decreased Testosterone levels. The causes of dementia can vary, depending on the types of brain changes that may be taking place References: Mayo Clinic.

Early-onset Alzheimer's This occurs in people under 65 and as early as age 30 to Familial Alzheimer's disease FAD is a form of Alzheimer's disease that doctors know for certain is linked to genes. Stage 2: Very Mild Decline A person may notice minor memory problems or lose things around the house, although not to the point where the memory loss can easily be distinguished from normal age related memory loss. Stage 3: Mild Decline At this stage, the friends and family members may begin to notice memory and cognitive problems. Confusion about where they are or what day it is Inability to manage finance and pay bills Feeling moody or withdrawn, especially in socially or mentally challenging situations Refusing to bathe Frustrated or angry Damage to nerve cells occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought.

It can become difficult to perform routine tasks.

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People in stage five of the disease may experience: Significant confusion Difficulty dressing appropriately for the season or the occasion Inability to recall their own address or telephone number or the high school or college from which they graduated Changes in sleep patterns, such as sleeping during the day and becoming restless at night An increased risk of wandering and becoming lost Personality and behavioral changes, including paranoia, delusions or behaving impulsively Repetitive behavior like hand-wringing or tissue shredding People at this stage may maintain some functionality.

Stage 6: Severe Decline A person needs constant supervision and frequently requires professional care. While patients may still be able to utter words and phrases, they have increasing difficulty communicating They have no insight into their condition and require full-time around the clock assistance with all activities of daily living. Experience changes in physical abilities, including the ability to walk, sit and eventually, swallow. The person may be in bed most or all of the time as the body shuts down. Become vulnerable to infections, especially pneumonia References: www. Vascular Dementia is the second most common type of dementia.

Etiology Common conditions that may lead to vascular dementia Stroke infarction. Subcortical dementia is thought to be the most common type of vascular dementia. These conditions include the wear and tear associated with aging: High Blood Pressure - puts extra stress on blood vessels everywhere in your body, including your brain High Cholesterol Atherosclerosis - occurs when deposits of cholesterol and other substances plaques , build up in the arteries thickening and narrowing the blood vessels.

Diabetes - high glucose levels damage blood vessels throughout your body. Smoking - directly damages your blood vessels, increasing your risk of atherosclerosis and other circulatory diseases. Obesity Atrial fibrillation abnormal heart rhythm - The upper chambers of your heart begin to beat rapidly and irregularly, out of coordination with your heart's lower chambers. Atrial fibrillation increases your risk of stroke by leading to poor blood flow to your brain and elsewhere in your body. History of heart attack, strokes or mini strokes.

The brain damage that occurs with a stroke or a mini stroke may increase your risk of developing dementia. Lupus Erythematosus Brain Hemorrhage Temporal arteritis Prevention Early detection and accurate diagnosis are important, as vascular dementia is at least partially preventable. Symptoms Vascular dementia symptoms vary, depending on the part of the brain where blood flow is impaired.

Vascular dementia symptoms include: Confusion Trouble focusing and concentrating Reduced ability to organize thoughts or actions Problems with memory Restlessness and agitation Unsteady gait Depression Prognosis Unlike Alzheimer's disease which weakens the patient causing them to succumb to bacterial infections like pneumonia, vascular dementia can be a direct cause of death due to the possibility of a fatal interruption in the brain's blood supply. Stages of Vascular Dementia Stage 1: No Cognitive Impairment During this stage, Vascular Dementia is not detectable and no memory problems or other symptoms of dementia are evident.

Stage 2: Very Mild Cognitive Impairment A person may notice minor memory problems or lose things around the house, although not to the point where the memory loss can easily be distinguished from normal age related memory loss. Stage 3: Mild Cognitive Decline Mild Cognitive Impairment During this stage one might see clear-cut deficits Impaired memory - may misplace or lose something of value Unable to retain new information Difficulty with word retrieval Mood changes such as apathy, depression or anxiety as well as personality changes may also be seen. Difficulty with concentration will be clear on testing Denial begins to manifest in individuals Mild to moderate anxiety accompanies symptoms Stage 4: Moderate Cognitive Decline Mild Dementia Clear —cut deficit on careful clinical interview Decreased knowledge of current and recent events Decreased concentration seen on serial subtractions They have a tendency to get lost more easily than in the past Denial is dominant defense mechanism Withdrawal from challenging situations often occur Stage 5: Moderately Severe Cognitive Decline Moderate dementia Individuals can no longer survive without some help Individual may be unable to recall their address or telephone number of many years or the names of their grandchildren They frequently have some disorientation to time date, day of week, season, etc.

May have some difficulty choosing the proper clothing to wear Short-term memory is significantly compromised Difficulty remembering new information Difficulty grasping the concepts of time and space Stage 6: Severe Cognitive Decline Moderately Severe Dementia May occasionally forget the name of the spouse upon whom they are entirely dependent for survival. An individual will be largely unaware of all recent events and experiences in their lives Generally unaware of their surroundings, the year, the season, etc.

May have difficulty counting from 10, both backward and sometimes forward Will need some help with activities of daily living e. These are quite variable and include: Delusional behavior — believe things that are not true. Patients may accuse their spouse of being an impostor. Frequently there is no speech at all, only unintelligible utterances and rare emergence of seemingly forgotten words and phrases. Incontinent of urine, requires assistance toileting and feeding.

Basic gross motor skills are lost - ability to walk The brain appears to no longer be able to tell the body what to do. Generalized rigidity eventually develops. It is nearly impossible for individuals to engage in activities outside the home even with help from care partners.

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Symptoms Mixed dementia symptoms may vary, depending on the types of brain changes involved and the brain regions affected. Diagnosis A diagnosis of mixed dementia infrequently comes during life. Treatment and Outcomes Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia that's been diagnosed.

References www. Etiology In FTD, the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain shrink. The two most prominent diseases that cause frontotemporal degenerations are: 1 A group of brain disorders involving the accumulation of microscopic abnormal tau, protein- filled structures that develops within brain cells Pick bodies. Symptoms FTD is categorized according to their symptoms. In bvFTD, the nerve cell loss is most prominent in areas that control: Conduct - Increasingly inappropriate actions. Loss of empathy and other interpersonal skills Lack of judgment and inhibition Apathy Repetitive compulsive behavior A decline in personal hygiene Changes in eating habits, predominantly overeating For sight - Lack of awareness of thinking or behavioral changes Behavior may become impulsive and compulsive.

Primary progressive aphasia PPA This is the second major form of FTD and is marked by the impairment or loss of speech and language difficulties, writing and comprehension. The two most distinctive forms of PPA have somewhat different symptoms 1 Semantic Variant of PPA - is characterized by an increasing difficulty in using and understanding written and spoken language. Pick's disease is only one of several types of frontotemporal dementia. They may have Memory difficulties as the disease progresses Difficulty paying attention, and recalling what they have been told They have difficulty sequencing Easily distracted Unable to do their daily tasks They usually remain aware of time, date, and place For some people, language problems are the only symptom for 10 or more years.

Movement-related signs and symptoms may include: Tremor Rigidity Muscle spasms Poor coordination Difficulty swallowing Muscle weakness - Muscles of the head and neck are affected, making swallowing, chewing, and talking difficult. They may inhale aspirate food, sometimes resulting in aspiration pneumonia. Corticobasal syndrome - causes arms and legs to become uncoordinated or stiff.

Diagnosis of dementia Frontotemporal dementia is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric problem or as Alzheimer's disease. A Diagnosis of Dementia is based on the following: Symptoms and history acquired by asking the person, family members or other caregivers. Neuropsychological Testing Sometimes doctors request a more extensive assessment of reasoning and memory skills.

Brain scans By looking at images of the brain, doctors may be able to pinpoint any visible abnormalities such as: clots, bleeding or tumors that may be causing signs and symptoms. Treatment There are no specific treatments for any of the frontotemporal subtypes. Prognosis The length of progression varies, from 2 to over 20 years with a mean course of years from the onset of symptoms.

Most people with FTD are diagnosed at a younger age than Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's on the other hand, grows more common with increasing age, however young onset Alzheimer's does occur. Memory loss tends to be a more prominent symptom in early Alzheimer's than in early FTD, although advanced FTD often causes memory loss in addition to its more characteristic effects on behavior and language.

Behavior changes are also common as Alzheimer's progresses, but they tend to occur later in the disease. Problems with spatial orientation — for example, getting lost in familiar places - are more common in Alzheimer's than in FTD. Problems with speech. Although people with Alzheimer's may have trouble thinking of the right word or remembering names, they tend to have less difficulty making sense when they speak, understanding the speech of others, or reading than those with FTD.

Hallucinations and delusions are relatively common as Alzheimer's progresses, but relatively uncommon in FTD. Etiology In the healthy brain, alpha-synuclein protein plays a number of important roles in neurons nerve cells in the brain, especially where brain cells communicate with each other. Symptoms Lewy body dementia signs and symptoms may include: Visual hallucinations - Hallucinations may be one of the first symptoms, and they often recur.

They may include seeing shapes, animals or people that aren't there. Sound auditory , smell olfactory or touch tactile hallucinations are possible. Perception Errors - for example, seeing faces in a carpet pattern. Movement disorders - Signs of Parkinson's disease parkinsonian symptoms , such as slowed movement, rigid muscles, tremor or a shuffling walk may occur.

Poor regulation of body functions autonomic nervous system - Blood pressure, pulse, sweating and the digestive process are regulated by a part of the nervous system that is often affected by Lewy body dementia. This can result in dizziness, falls and bowel issues such as constipation. Cognitive problems - You may experience thinking cognitive problems similar to those of Alzheimer's disease, such as confusion, poor attention, visual-spatial problems, progressive memory loss, language, reasoning and more trouble with complex mental activities, such as calculating numbers, multitasking, and problem solving.

Sleep difficulties - You may have rapid eye movement REM sleep behavior disorder, which can cause you to physically act out your dreams while you're asleep. Obvious changes in alertness may also happen. They may be sleepy during the day, but wide awake at night, unable to sleep. Fluctuating attention - Fluctuation in cognitive ability, attention and alertness. Episodes of drowsiness, long periods of staring into space, long naps during the day or disorganized speech are possible.

Depression - You may experience depression sometime during the course of your illness. Diagnosis Diagnosing LBD can be challenging for a number of reasons. Types of Lewy Body Dementia Lewy body dementia is used to describe all dementias whose primary cause is abnormal deposits of Lewy bodies in the brain. Prognosis LBD is a progressive disease, meaning symptoms start slowly and worsen over time.

Etiology Movement is normally controlled by dopamine, a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells in the brain. There are three types of Parkinson's disease and they are grouped by age of onset: Adult-Onset Parkinson's Disease - This is the most common type of Parkinson's disease. The average age of onset is approximately 60 years old.

The incidence of adult onset PD rises noticeably as people advance in age into their 70's and 80's. Juvenile Parkinson's disease - The age of onset is before the age of The incidence of Juvenile Parkinson's disease is very rare. It is more likely to include focal dystonia, which is cramping or abnormal posturing of one part of the body. Younger people are more sensitive to the benefits of Parkinson medications, but they tend to experience movement problems motor fluctuations as a complication of long-term use of levodopa more so than older people.

The majority of people who take levodopa develop these problems within 5 to 10 years. The main types of levodopa-related motor fluctuations include: The wearing-off effect. Wearing-off periods occur when the effects of a single dose of levodopa does not last as long as it used to. Control of motor symptoms decreases as the effects of the medicine wear off, and symptoms do not improve until the next dose of levodopa is taken.

These motor fluctuations are easy to predict based on the timing of each dose of medicine. Dyskinesias are sudden, uncontrollable, often jerky or writhing movements. They may affect the head, neck, arms, and legs, or other parts of the body. Dyskinesias are especially common in younger people with Parkinson's. The on-off response. The symptoms are similar to the motor problems that occur as a result of the wearing-off effect, but they are harder to predict and more difficult to treat.

An "off" period usually occurs suddenly, over seconds or minutes, and the person may freeze. In contrast, uncontrollable movements may occur during the "on" periods. In looking at how a person does their job, consider the following: Make an outline of your overall responsibilities Break each area down into specific tasks Consider whether or not the symptoms will interfere with the ability to carry out each task Look for other ways of doing things Create a schedule that enables you to address difficult or challenging tasks during your peak performance periods Set aside specific hours for time-consuming efforts like writing reports The issue of when and what to tell your employer is very much a personal decision depending upon your condition and personality as well as your employment situation.

Here are some things to consider: Can the person keep their symptoms from their employer? Is the person working on a project that they want to finish before telling their employer? Should the person tell their employer so that there is adequate time to plan how to accommodate the person in the work place? Older Parents Older parents are often shocked to learn that their middle-aged or younger child is diagnosed with a disease that is usually associated with the elderly. Symptoms This type of Lewy Body Disease starts as a movement disorder, with symptoms such as: Slowed movement Shuffling walk Muscle stiffness Tremors or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face Impaired balance Difficulty walking and with coordination as the symptoms become more pronounced Cognitive symptoms and changes in mood and behavior may arise later on.

The major non-motor complications that are often associated with Parkinson's disease, including: Cognitive impairment Dementia Psychosis Depression Fatigue Problems with hand writing Stooped Posture Sleep disturbances Constipation Sexual dysfunction Vision disturbances Diagnosis A diagnosis of Parkinson's can take time. Treatment Because currently there is no known cure for Parkinson's disease, understanding the standard treatments and options is critical so that you can make informed decisions about your treatment for better controlling the symptoms and preserving the patient's overall functional capacity and quality of life.

A person with Parkinson's can live for years. Some treatment options include: Medications are commonly used to increase the levels of dopamine in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease in an attempt to slow down the progression of the disease. Lifestyle modifications have been found to be effective for controlling motor symptoms in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Surgical treatment options are available for Parkinson's patients with severe motor symptoms that cannot be controlled with medications. These surgical techniques include: Pallidotomy Thalamotomy Deep brain stimulation Physical therapy helps mobility, flexibility and balance Occupational therapy helps with daily activities Speech therapy helps with voice control Exercise helps muscles and joints and improves overall health and well-being.

Prognosis PD is a chronic and progressive condition with symptoms worsening over time and new ones appearing. References: National Institute of Neurological disorders and Stroke merkmanuals. Juvenile Huntington's disease - The onset begins before age The condition often results in a somewhat different presentation of symptoms from an adult and faster disease progression.

Movement Disorders The movement disorders associated with Huntington's disease can include both involuntary movements and impairments in voluntary movements. Involuntary jerking or writhing movements chorea Muscle problems, such as rigidity or muscle contracture dystonia Slow or abnormal eye movements Impaired gait, posture and balance Difficulty with speech or swallowing Impairments in the voluntary movements may have a greater impact on a person's ability to work, perform daily activities, communicate and remain independent.

Cognitive disorders Cognitive impairments often associated with Huntington's disease include: Difficulty organizing, prioritizing or focusing on tasks Lack of flexibility or the tendency to get stuck on a thought, behavior or action Lack of impulse control that can result in outbursts, acting without thinking and sexual promiscuity Lack of awareness of one's own behaviors and abilities Slowness in processing thoughts or ''finding'' words Difficulty in learning new information Psychiatric disorders The most common psychiatric disorder associated with Huntington's disease is depression.

Early Stages Subtle cognitive changes. Difficulty organizing routine matters or coping effectively with new situations Difficulty recalling information - may appear forgetful Work activities may become more time-consuming Decision making and attention to details may be impaired Irritability may occur Slight physical changes may also develop at this stage. Intermediate Stage As the disease progresses, the symptoms become worse. Physical symptoms gradually develop - jerking and twitching of the head, neck and arms and legs. These movements may interfere with walking, speaking and swallowing.

People often stagger when they walk Speech may become slurred Increasing difficulty working or managing a household, but can still deal with most activities of daily living. Advanced Stage Typically, there are fewer involuntary movements and more rigidity. A person no longer can manage the activities of daily living and usually requires professional help. Eventually the person is confined to a bed and unable to speak.

Difficulties with swallowing, communication, and weight loss are common. Death usually occurs 15 to 25 years after the onset of the disease. Common causes of death include Pneumonia or other infections Injuries related to falls Complications related to the inability to swallow Heart Failure Diagnosis If a person notices changes in their movements, emotional state or mental ability they should see a Physician.

Brain imaging and function A doctor may order brain-imaging tests for assessing the structure or function of the brain. MRI - can produce detailed cross-sectional and 3-D images of the brain CT scan - produces cross-sectional images. Treatment Medications are available to help manage the symptoms of Huntington's disease such as depression, anxiety, and involuntary movements, but there are no treatments to prevent the physical, mental and behavioral decline associated with the disease.

Prognosis There is no known cure, but treatment with medicines may help control the involuntary movements and behavior changes. There are many options now available for a person living at risk of HD. Become informed: There are many resources available. Speak to a Genetics Counsellor - each province has a genetics program to help a person learn about the risk factors and help identify if this is the time for them to receive genetics testing.

Mutual Support - Speak with others at risk References www. The abnormal immune system response produces inflammation in the central nervous system. Symptoms Extreme fatigue Muscle weakness in extremities Tingling and numbness Loss of muscle coordination and balance. These symptoms may be severe enough to impair walking or even standing.

In the worst cases, MS can produce partial or complete paralysis. Problems with vision and speech Tremors and dizziness Problems with Bladder control Hearing loss occasionally may affect a person with MS Cognitive impairment and mood changes Approximately half of all people with MS experience cognitive impairments such as difficulties with concentration, attention, memory, and poor judgment, but such symptoms are usually mild and are frequently overlooked.

Depression MS affects a person in different ways. Diagnosis MS is difficult to diagnose in the beginning. MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to measure the relative water content in both normal tissue and abnormal tissues in the body. Because the myelin that protects nerve cell fibers is fatty, it repels the water. In the areas where the myelin has been damaged by MS, the fat is stripped away. With the fat gone, the area holds more water, and shows up on an MRI scan as either a bright white spot or a darkened area depending on the type of scan that is used. Spinal cord imaging can identify pathology in the cord.

It can also help establish the diagnosis of MS by demonstrating that damage has occurred in different parts of the central nervous system dissemination in space at different points in time. Lab Findings Cerebrospinal fluid analysis involves the removal of a small amount of the fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord. Evoked potential EP tests measure the electrical activity of the brain in response to stimulation of specific sensory nerve pathways.

They are able to detect the slowing of electrical conduction caused by damage demyelination even when the change is too subtle to be noticed by the person or to show up on neurologic examination. The diagnosis of MS requires evidence of demyelination in two distinct areas of the central nervous system. EP testing can help confirm the diagnosis by identifying a second demyelinating event that caused no clinical symptoms or was not otherwise apparent. Prognosis A physician may diagnose MS soon after the onset of the illness.

Treatment Currently there is no cure for MS. CJD can be inherited or caused by exposure to diseased brain or nervous system tissue. There are three major categories of CJD In sporadic CJD, the disease appears even though the person has no known risk factors for the disease. This is by far the most common type of CJD and accounts for at least 85 percent of cases. About 5 to 10 percent of cases of CJD are hereditary.

These cases arise from a mutation or change in the gene that controls formation of the normal prion protein. All mutations in the prion protein gene are inherited as dominant traits. Therefore, family history is helpful in considering the diagnosis. Several different mutations in the prion gene have been identified. The particular mutation found in each family affects how frequently the disease appears and what symptoms are most noticeable. However, not all people with mutations in the prion protein gene develop CJD. Acquired CJD, the disease is transmitted by exposure to brain or nervous system tissue, usually through certain medical procedures.

Less than 1 percent of cases have been acquired CJD. Symptoms Typically, onset of symptoms occurs about age 60, and about 90 percent of people with CJD die within 1 year. Diagnosis There is currently no single diagnostic test for CJD. A neurological examination will be performed. Computerized tomography CT of the brain can help rule out the possibility that the symptoms result from other problems such as stroke or a brain tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI brain scans also can reveal characteristic patterns of brain degeneration that can help diagnose CJD.

Treatment There is no treatment that can cure or control CJD. Prognosis As the disease progresses, it profoundly affects the brain as well as the body. Transmission CJD cannot be transmitted through the air, touching or most other forms of casual contact. How Can People Avoid Spreading the disease? Care partners, healthcare workers, and undertakers should take the following precautions when they are working with a person with CJD: Cover cuts and abrasions with waterproof dressings. Wear surgical gloves when handling tissues, fluids or dressing the wounds of a person with CJD.

Use disposable bedclothes and other cloth for contact with the patient. If disposable materials are not available, regular cloth should be soaked in undiluted chlorine bleach for an hour or more, and then washed in a normal fashion after each use. Use face protection if there is a risk of splashing contaminated material such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Soak instruments that have come in contact with the person in undiluted chlorine bleach for an hour or more, then use an autoclave pressure cooker to sterilize them in distilled water for at least one hour at - degrees Centigrade.

Symptoms of Mild TBI include Headache Confusion Light headedness or dizziness Blurred vision or tired eyes Ringing in the ears Bad taste in the mouth Fatigue or lethargy Change in sleep patterns Behavioral or mood changes Trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. Symptoms of Moderate to Severe TBI include A headache that gets worse or does not go away Repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures Inability to awaken from sleep Dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes Slurred speech Weakness or numbness in the extremities Loss of coordination Increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.


More serious head injuries may result in Stupor -an unresponsive state, but one in which the person can be aroused briefly by a strong stimulus, such as sharp pain. Coma - a state in which the person is totally unconscious, unresponsive, unaware, and unarousable. Vegetative - a state in which the person is unconscious and unaware of surroundings, but continues to have a sleep-wake cycle and periods of alertness. Persistent vegetative state PVS — a person stays in a vegetative state for more than a month. Prognosis Approximately half of severe head-injuries will need surgery to remove or repair hematomas ruptured blood vessels or contusions bruised brain tissue.

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Some common disabilities as a result of a TBI Problems with cognition thinking, memory, and reasoning Sensory processing sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell Communication expression and understanding Behavior or mental health depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, and social inappropriateness. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is caused by repeated traumatic brain injury TBI , such as in boxers or in a person who suffered multiple concussions while playing a contact sport.

Paraneoplastic Syndromes Etiology Paraneoplastic Syndromes are a group of rare disorders that may develop when cancer cells release substances that disrupt the normal function of surrounding cells and tissue. Symptoms Neurologic symptoms generally develop over a period of days to weeks and usually occur prior to the tumor being discovered. Treatment When present, the tumor and cancer are treated first, followed by efforts to decrease the autoimmune response, either through steroids such as cortisone or prednisone, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, or irradiation.

Prognosis There are no cures for paraneoplastic syndromes. Dementia-like Conditions That Can Be Reversed A small percentage of dementias are reversible, occurring as a secondary development in treatable conditions. Such conditions include Infections - Dementia-like symptoms or delirium can result from fever or other side effects of your body's attempt to fight off an infection.

Risk factors for dementia Many factors can eventually lead to dementia. Environmental Factors Environmental factors may play a role in the development of certain types of dementia. Substance Abuse — A person who has abused substances such as alcohol and recreational drugs sometimes display signs of dementia even after the substance abuse has stopped. This condition is known as substance-induced persisting dementia. Poisoning - Exposure to lead, mercury, other heavy metals, or poisonous substances such as pesticides can lead to symptoms of dementia.

These symptoms may or may not resolve after treatment, depending on how severely the brain is damaged. Anoxia - This condition also called cerebral hypoxia occurs when there is a decrease of oxygen supply to the brain even though there is adequate blood flow.


This can lead to the loss of neurons and brain injury. Brain cells are extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation and can begin to die within five minutes after oxygen supply has been cut off. Drowning, strangling, choking, suffocation, cardiac arrest, head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, and complications of general anesthesia can create conditions that can lead to cerebral hypoxia.

Symptoms of Anoxia Confusion Personality changes Hallucinations Memory loss When hypoxia lasts for longer periods of time, it can cause coma, seizures, and even brain death. Treatment Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the hypoxia, but basic life-support systems have to be put in place. Mechanical ventilation to secure the airway Fluids and sometimes blood products Medications to support blood pressure and heart rate Medications to suppress seizures Prognosis Recovery depends on how long the brain has been deprived of oxygen and how much brain damage has occurred, although carbon monoxide poisoning can cause brain damage days to weeks after the event.

Risk factors that can't be changed Age - The risk rises with age, especially after age However, dementia isn't a normal part of aging, and dementia can occur in a younger person. Family history - Having a family history of dementia puts a person at greater risk of developing the disease. However, a person with a family history may never develop symptoms, and a person without a family history may develop the symptoms. Tests to determine whether a person has certain genetic mutations are available.

Down syndrome - By middle age, a person with Down syndrome may develop early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Since a person with Down syndrome has an additional copy of the 21st chromosome, the person is prone to an over-production of the protein. Mild cognitive impairment - This involves difficulties with memory but without loss of daily function. It puts people at higher risk of dementia. Risk factors a person might be able to control Heavy alcohol use - If a person drinks large amounts of alcohol, the person might have a higher risk of dementia.